In the literature, many different architectures for and interaction models of multimodal (and other complex) systems can be found. Some of them will be reviewed briefly within this section. The first six paragraphs will mainly deal with different architectures for multimodal systems. The next one presents a layered model for interactions in Virtual Environments which can easily be adapted to a multimodal system. In the following three paragraphs, the focus has been set to the user interface, and in the last paragraph a technique for the development of UIs for multimodal systems will be presented. The basic idea of this section is to give a short overview on existing architectures and models in order to simplify the development of our own architecture which will be developed in .