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Result and Purpose with 'so'.

M. Andersson and J. Spenader (2014)
Journal Lingua, Volume 148, Pages 1-27.

Abstract

Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal Result coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of Purpose, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for Purpose and optional for Result. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that Result and Purpose with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with Purpose. In the corpus study, Purpose always occurs with explicit so, while Result is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. 0320 and 0355). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35–40% of examples were identified as Purpose without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for Purpose relations and yet optional for Result. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for Purpose, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries

Reflexive Choice in Dutch and German

Hendriks,P, J. Hoeks and J. Spenader (2014)
Journal Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 17:3, 229-252.

Abstract

Standard Dutch and German have two reflexive forms: a weak form (zich in Dutch and sich in German) and a strong form (zichzelf in Dutch and sich selbst in German). The choice between the two reflexive forms in Dutch has been explained by the selectional restrictions of the verb, distinguishing between three verb classes: inherently reflexive verbs, accidentally reflexive verbs and transitive verbs. The same three verb classes can be distinguished in German, suggesting that the factors governing reflexive choice in Dutch and German are similar. However, several studies have pointed out that Dutch zich is more restricted in its use than German sich. We used a forced-choice task to test adult Dutch and German participants on their preference for the weak versus strong reflexive form with various verb classes and sentence types. Comparing similar sentences across the two languages, we observe an overall preference for the strong reflexive in Dutch but an overall preference for the weak reflexive in German. Looking at the participants’ reflexive choices within each language, we found effects of verb class, syntactic structure (transitive versus ECM constructions) and semantic features. Whereas the semantic feature habituality affected reflexive choice in neither language, intentionality did so in Dutch only, and tense and possibly focus affected reflexive choice in both languages. These observations seem problematic for the syntactically motivated dual-entry account of reflexive choice, but are consistent with the likelihood account.

Simulating Prosody in Indirect Speech: A Reading Study

Maier, E., A. de Koster, and J. Spenader (2015).
Book chapterIn: Lestrade et al. (eds.) Addenda: artikelen voor Ad Foolen. pp. 263-273.

Abstract

Direct speech is more vivid and expressive than indirect speech because it involves the demonstration of a speech act rather than just a description of what was said. Free indirect speech is a third mode of reported speech that seems to pattern with direct speech in many respects, including, anecdotally, prosody. Based on (i) Yao and Scheepers's (2011) finding that readers adjust their reading rate to the contextually implied speech rate of the reported speaker in direct speech, and (ii) the quotational theory of free indirect speech, we hypothesized that free indirect speech should differ from indirect speech in showing reading rate adjustment. However, in an experiment comparing reading rate adjustment in free indirect and in indirect speech we found no significant differences. This could indicate that free indirect speech is not after all just a species of quotation, like direct speech. However, given the differences between Yao and Scheepers’s task and ours, further testing is required to prove this.

Is the Dutch Delay of Principle B effect dependent on verb type?

Van den Akker, S., J. Hoeks, J. Spenader, and P. Hendriks (2012)
Book chapterLinguistics in the Netherlands. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 1-14.
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Abstract

Dutch children interpret reflexives correctly from age 3 or 4 on, but frequently misinterpret object pronouns as coreferring with the local subject until age 6. We investigated whether this so-called Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) differs by verb type. We tested 47 children between 4 and 6 years old with regular transitive verbs (e.g., to hit) and grooming verbs (e.g, to wash), verbs that often refer to reflexive actions. In general, children displaying the DPBE performed equally well on both verb types. In contrast, children who performed poorly on reflexives as well as pronouns made significantly more errors interpreting pronouns with grooming verbs than with transitive verbs. This suggests that even young children are aware of the tendency for certain events to be self-directed. However, our results show they only apply this information when interpreting pronouns, indicating that they also use their grammatical knowledge.

An Annotated Corpus of VP-Ellipsis

Johan Bos and Jennifer Spenader (2011)
Journal Language Resources and Evaluation. 45(4), 463-494.

Abstract

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Contrast as denial in multi-dimensional semantics.

J. Spenader and E. Maier (2009)
Journal Journal of Pragmatics. 41(9), 1707-1726.
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Abstract

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Coherent discourse solves the pronoun interpretation problem.

J. Spenader, EJ Smits and P. Hendriks (2009)
Journal Journal of Child Language. 36(1), 23-52.

Abstract

Many comprehension studies have shown that children as late as age 6;6 misinterpret object pronouns as coreferring with the referential subject about half the time. A recent review of earlier experiments testing children's interpretation of object pronouns in sentences with quantified subjects (Elbourne, 2005) also suggests that there is a "Pronoun Interpretation Problem". In contrast, two experiments addressing English children’s pronoun production (Bloom, Barss, Nicol and Conway, 1994; de Villiers, Cahillane, and Altreuter, 2006) show almost perfect usage. The aim of this study is to verify this asymmetry between pronoun production and pronoun comprehension for Dutch, and to investigate the effects of coherent discourse and topicality on pronoun production and comprehension. Employing a truth-value judgment task and an elicited production task, this study indeed finds such an asymmetry in 83 Dutch children (age range 4;5-6;6). When object pronouns were clearly established as the topic of the target sentence, the Pronoun Interpretation Problem dissolved entirely. These results are compatible with the asymmetrical grammar hypothesis of Hendriks and Spenader (2005/2006) and suggest, contrary to many previous claims, that children are highly proficient at using pragmatic clues in interpretation.

When production precedes comprehension: An optimization approach to the acquisition of pronouns.

P Hendriks and J. Spenader (2006/2006)
Journal Language Acquisition. 13(4), 319-348.

Abstract

Data from child language comprehension shows that children make errors in interpreting pronouns as late as age 6;6, yet correctly comprehend reflexives from the age of 3;0. On the other hand, data from child language production shows that children correctly produce both pronouns and reflexives from the age of 2 or 3. Current explanations of this asymmetric delay in comprehension have either rejected the comprehension data outright or have argued that the problems are pragmatic or caused by processing limitations. In contrast, our account, formulated in the framework of Optimality Theory, handles the comprehension data as well as the production data by arguing that children acquire the ability to take into account the alternatives available to their conversational partner relatively late. It is this type of bidirectional optimization, we argue, that is necessary for correctly interpreting pronouns.

Defining antonymy: a corpus-based study of opposites by lexico-syntactic patterns.

Anna Lobanova, T. van der Kleij and J. Spenader (2010)
Journal International Journal of Lexicography, 23(1), 19-5
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Abstract

Coming soon.

From group results to individual patterns in pronoun comprehension.

van Rij, J., P. Hendriks, J. Spenader and H. van Rijn
Conference Paper In: Proceedings of the 33rd annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD 33), Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA. pp 563-574.

Abstract

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Modeling the selective effects of slowed-down speech in pronoun comprehension

van Rij, J., P. Hendriks, J. Spenader and H. van Rijn
Conference Paper In: Jean Crawford, Koichi Otaki, and Masahiko Takahashi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition North America (GALANA 2008), Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, MA, pp. 291-302.

Abstract

In this paper the authors discuss a computational cognitive model of children's well-known difficulties with pronoun comprehension (the so-called Delay of Principle B Effect, or DPBE). In this DPBE/ACT-R model, Hendriks and Spenader's Optimality Theoretic account (2005/2006) is implemented in the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Hendriks and Spenader attribute the DPBE to a direction-sensitive grammar in combination with children's inability to take into account the speaker's perspective (bidirectional optimization). The cognitive model predicts that children are in principle able to consider the speaker's perspective but lack the processing efficiency to complete this process within the amount of time available for comprehension. The authors investigated this prediction of the DPBE/ACT-R model in a psycholinguistic experiment, in which children's pronoun comprehension at a normal speech rate was compared with their comprehension at a slower speech rate. By slowing down the speech rate, children are given more time for interpretation. Slowed-down speech was found to have a beneficial effect on children's pronoun comprehension, but only if the child displays a DPBE, thus supporting the hypothesis of the cognitive model.

Reliable Discourse Markers for Contrast

J. Spenader and A. Lobanova
Conference Paper Eighth International Workshop on Computational Semantics, Tilburg, January, 2009.

Abstract

Using the RST annotated corpus (Carlson et al., 2003), we use simple statistics on the distribution of discourse markers or cue phrases as evidence of the three-way distinction of Contrast relations, CONTRAST, ANTITHESIS and CONCESSION, recognized in standard Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST, Mann and Thompson 1987). We also show that 'however', an intuitive marker of Contrast, is not actually used statistically significantly more often in Contrast relations than in Cause-Effect relations. These results highlight the need for empirically based discourse marker identification rather than the intuitive method that is the current norm.

A large-scale investigation of scalar implicature.

Hendriks, P., J. Hoeks, H. de Hoop, I. Kramer, E-J. Smits, J. Spenader and H. de Swart.
Book chapterIn: U. Sauerland and K. Yatsushiro (Eds.), Semantics and Pragmatics: From Experiment to Theory. Palgrave Studies in Pragmatics, Language and Cognition, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK, pp. 30-50.
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Abstract

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Factive Presuppositions, Accommodation and Information structure

J. Spenader
Journal Journal of Logic Language and Information, Vol. 12(3), 351-368.

Abstract

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Modality Realization as Contrast in Discourse

J. Spenader
Journal Journal of Semantics, Vol. 21(2), 113-131.

Abstract

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Using simple alignment measures to study discourse particles">

J. Spenader
Journal Sprache und Datenverarbeitung, International Journal for Language Data Processing. Vol. 28(1), 9-19.

Abstract

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Strong and weak reflexives in Dutch.

Bouma, G. and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories. January 23-24, 2009. Groningen.

Abstract

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Frequency-based constraints on reflexive forms in Dutch.

Hendriks, P.,J. Spenader and E-J. Smits
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008), Computer Science Research Reports, No. 122, Roskilde University, Denmark, pp. 33-47.

Abstract

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Lexical and Perceptual Grounding of a Sound Ontology.

Lobanova, A.,J. Spenader and B. Valkenier
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, 2007, Pilsen, Czech Republic, Sept. 3-7. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 4629, Springer. pp. 180-187.

Abstract

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Using Very Large Parsed Corpora and Judgement Data to Classify Verb Reflexivity.

Smits, E.J., P. Hendriks and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn Anaphora: Analysis, Algorithms and Applications. Selected papers from the 6th Discourse Anaphora and Anaphor Resolution Colloquium, DAARC 2007, Lagos, Portugal, March 2007. Branco, A. Ed. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 44410, Springer. pp. 77-93

Abstract

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Antonymy in Contrast Relations

Spenader, J. and. G. Stulp
Conference PaperIn Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Computational Semantics, Tilburg, 10-12 January 2007.

Abstract

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Incorporating Polarity in Lexical Resources.

Lobanova, A. and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn Proceedings of Generative Lexicon 2007, Approaches to the Generative Lexicon. Paris, May 2007.

Abstract

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Pronouns in competition: Predicting acquisition delays cross-linguistically.

Hendriks, P. I. Siekman, E-J. Smits and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn: Dagmar Bittner and Natalia Gagarina (Eds) SAS Papers in Linguistics, Volume 48, Intersentential Pronominal Reference in Child and Adult Language, pp. 75-101.

Abstract

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Unifying Contrast and Denial

Maier, E. and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn Proceedings of Catalog, 2004, the 7th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, Barcelona, July 19-20. 2004

Abstract

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Cancellation Resistent PCI's

Huitink, J. and J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2004 Workshop on Implicature and Conversational Meaning. Nancy, Francy, 9-20 August, 2004.

Abstract

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A Bidirectional Explanation for the Pronoun Interpretation Problem

J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2004 Workshop on Semantic Approaches to Binding Theory, Nancy Franc, 9-20 August, 2004. Also ROA-664-0504

Abstract

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Mining Parallel Corpora for Discourse Particle Usage

Spenader, J.
Conference PaperIn Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2003 workshop on the Meaning and Implementtation of Discourse Particles, Manfred Stede and Henk Zeevat, Eds. Vienna, August 18-22, 2003

Abstract

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Presuppositions or Anaphora

Spenader, J.
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2001 Workshop on Information Structure, Discourse Structure and Discourse Semantics, Hesinki, Finland, 13-24 August.

Abstract

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Presuppositions or Anaphora: Constraints on Choice of Factive Complements in Spoken Discourse

Spenader, J.
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the ESSLLI 2001 Workshop on Information Structure, Discourse Structure and Discourse Semantics, Hesinki, Finland, 13-24 August.

Abstract

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Between Binding and Accommodation

Spenader, J.
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of Bi-Dialog, the Fifth Workshop on fthe Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, Bielefeld, 14-16 June, 2001.

Abstract

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What Textual Relationships Deman Phonetic Focus? A Corpus Study of Italics in Swedish Children's Books

J. Spenader
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Text, Speech and Dialogue, Brno, Czech Republic, September 13-16, 2000. Also Springer-Verlag in LNCS/LNAI.

Abstract

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Presuppositions in Multi-Speaker Discourse

Spenader, J.
Conference PaperIn the Proceedings of the ESSLLI 1999 Workshop on Focus and Presupposition in Multi-Speaker Discourse, B. Geurts, R. van der Sandt and M. Krifka, Eds, Utrech, the Netherlands. 9-20 August, 1999.

Abstract

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