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Stimuli

Table of payoff structures (tab delimited text file) referred to in CogSci2013 paper

Marble Drop apps

The actual Marble Drop apps will be presented here soon...

Description Marble Drop (2010, 2011, and 2012)

Below we provide a description of Marble Drop games presented in experiments conducted in 2010, 2011, and 2012. For the results, please look at the publications section.

We presented participants with Marble Drop games to test first- and second-order Theory of Mind (ToM). Marble Drop is a two-player, strategic game because the outcome of one player depends on the decisions of another player, and vice versa. You can download the paper(pdf) for a more detailed description of the game and the experiment.

To familiarize the participants with the gameplay, we first presented zeroth-order games in which participants didn't have to reason about another player. A white marble was about to drop and a participant had to remove one of the (orange) trapdoors to let it end up in the bin with the darkest orange marble. In the example game below a participant had to remove the right-sided trapdoor.

To test for first-order ToM, we presented participants with Marble Drop games in which a second set of trapdoors (blue) was controlled by another player. The other player's goal was to let the white marble end up in the bin with the darkest blue marble. The participants' goal did not change. These games required first-order ToM because the outcome of a participant depended on the decision of the other player. Thus, the participants had to reason about what the other player would do at the second set of trapdoors, if given a choice.

To test for second-order ToM, we presented participants with Marble Drop games with a third set of trapdoors (orange) that was controlled by the participants again. These games required second-order ToM because a participant had to reason about what the other player at the second set of trapdoors would think that they would do at the third set of trapdoors.