Historical material: Grey Walter's 'turtle robots' Elmer and Elsie
This popular-scientific publication by Grey Walter (translated to Dutch for the Echo journal) shows how much of the essential ideas in this field was already introduced in the early nineteen fifties.
Dr. Grey Walter.
Electronische schildpadden met menselijke eigenschappen.
(Electronic turtles with human characteristics)
De Internationale Echo, (48), augustus 1950, pp. 208-211.
HTML version (in Dutch)
Original version (in Dutch)
Front page of the issue of
in which this publication appeared
A list of concepts already introduced here by Grey Walter:
Multiple autonomous agents
Input: light sensors, contact switch
Output: locomotion, head lights
Artificial life: the robots search the location for charging batteries
Real non-linear dynamics: the characteristics of the thermionic valve were exploited to generate complex behavior.
Neural network modeling (2 neurons)
Turtle-helmet case with contact switch
Another, more clear photograph of that year (1950) with Grey Walter soldering Elsie
More on Grey Walter
More on the turtles